The composite construction is a generic term to describe any building construction involving multiple different materials . Composite construction is often used in the construction of airplanes, jet skis, and building construction. There are several reasons to use composite materials, including greater strength, aesthetics, and environmental sustainability.
In structural engineering composite construction exists when two different materials are bonded so tightly that they act together as a single unit from a structural point of view. When this occurs, it is called a compound action . A common example is with steel beams that support concrete floor slabs. If the beam is not firmly connected to the slab, then the slab transfers all of its weight to the beam and the slab contributes nothing to the beam’s bearing capacity. However, if the slab is embedded to the beam with bolts , then it can be assumed that a part of the slab acts in a compound manner with the beam. In effect, this compound creates a larger and stronger beam than the steel beam alone would provide. The structural engineer can calculate a transformed section as a step in the analysis of the load capacity of the composite beam.
A steel (sheet girder flitch beem) is a simple form of composite construction sometimes used in North American light frame construction. This occurs when a steel plate is sandwiched between two wooden beams and is screwed on. A flitch beam can withstand heavier loads over a longer span than a wooden beam of the same cross section. The traditional roofing material is pressure-treated wood. The current material that many contractors choose to use is the composite deck. This material is generally made of wood-plastic composite or fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP). These materials will not warp, crack or split, and are as versatile as traditional pressure-treated wood. Composite deck is made through several different processes, and there are a multitude of sizes, shapes, and strengths available. Depending on the type of compound selected, the deck materials can be used for a number of other construction projects, including fences and sheds.
In a deck composite steel (or platform), the different materials in question are steel and concrete. A composite steel deck combines the tensile strength of steel with the compressive strength of concrete to improve design efficiency and reduce the material required to cover a given area. Additionally, composite steel decks supported by composite steel joists can span greater distances between support members and have reduced live load deflection compared to previous construction methods.
The compounds of cement and polymer are being developed and tested as replacement for traditional concrete. Traditional cement used as stucco deteriorates quickly. Deterioration causes the material to crack easily as thermal processes become permeable to water and are no longer structurally sound. The United States Environmental Protection Agency , in conjunction with the Materials and Electrochemical Research Corporation, tested a cement-polymer composite material consisting of shredded rubber made from recycled tire rubber and cement. It was found that 20% crumbled rubber can be added to the cement mix without affecting the appearance of the cement. The strength and durability of this new material was tested using the standards of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM International).